A June 2003 trip
to Honolulu by smmmarti guide
Quote: Most visitors think of "cultural" Honolulu as luaus and the Polynesian Cultural Center. But the state capital and largest city of Hawaii also boasts treasures of art and history to rival those of the mainland. Abandon the beach for a day and find inspiring works of art, amazing historical venues, and more!
In a previous journal I referenced the Bishop Museum, with its exhaustive collection of Pacific Island art and artifacts, but that is just the beginning. Not only does Hawaii offer a unique venue for insights into island cultures not available elsewhere in the world, its multi-cultural influence is also the platform for other Pan-Asian inspirations. Additionally, the considerable resources of benefactors and art collectors who found their way to Hawaii from around the world have provided a number of magnificent forums from which to display extensive collections. One look at Doris Duke‘s idyll of Islamic art, Shangri-La, and it’s obvious what a wealth of masterpieces are available to visitors here.
In addition to those venues for which I‘ve written entries, you may be interested in visiting the Hawaii State Art Museum and the Hawaiian Historical Society. The John Young Art Museum , located at the University of Hawaii Manoa campus, is another cultural venue worth exploring. Mr. Young, a prominent Hawaiian artist, was also an avid collector and benefactor to the Honolulu Academy of Arts. This museum reflects his commitment to "enhance the knowledge and appreciation of art, and to further art education at the University for the benefit of students and the community." In this way, the museum is an important link for the continued sustenance of the art collections I visit in this journal.
Wiki-wiki shuttles can take you from any downtown hotel to the destinations I outline in this journal within minutes. The Judiciary Museum and `Iolani Palace are directly across the street from one another, and the Honolulu Academy of Arts is just minutes away. The Contemporary Museum is furthest "off the track," but still a short drive into Makai Heights (about 10 minutes). If you are interested in balancing the "body, mind and spirit," the steep uphill climb could make for a challenging hike.
I rented a car at the airport and easily found metered parking on the street directly in front of all the downtown venues. The Contemporary Museum has a private parking lot and annex lot at no additional charge.
I was overdue for lunch when I learned `Iolani Palace does not sell food or drinks, and the cafeteria at the State Capitol building had just closed. When a staff member suggested I try the YMCA across the street, I pouted, envisioning vending machines with pre-packaged turkey sandwiches.
Having little choice, I walked into the stately turn-of-the-century building of Honolulu’s downtown Y and strolled through the charming European style courtyard. I was surprised to find scrolled iron windows overflowing with bougainvillea and lunch hour lap swimmers turning flips in rhythm to whirling ceiling fans. When I spied the entrance to casual-chic Café Laniakea, I breathed a sigh of relief.
This was a far cry from the vendeteria offerings typical of my hometown YMCA. Once inside the unassuming café, a young waitress hurried around tables packed with ladies who lunch and offered me a seat and menu with the motto, "local first, organic whenever possible, and always with Aloha."
The courtyard of Café Laniakea is an ideal unhurried, unfettered spot to sit a spell and browse the daily news or, as most people seemed to be doing, meeting up with friends for a cozy lunch. It is a delight anywhere to find a casual but charming restaurant with great service and terrific food at good prices. In downtown Honolulu, this is clearly the sort of place locals think of first when suggesting where to get together mid-day.
The menu, printed daily, changes depending on fresh market options. When I visited, starter choices included pumpkin and ginger soup with crème fraiche, and a salad of baby lettuces and Kamuela tomato ($3.50). Hot entrées included chicken, salmon and tombo ahi with fried rice from $9.50-$11. Sandwich options ($7.50-$8.50) were marinated vegetables on foccacia, fresh catch club sandwich, North Shore Cattle company free range beef burger. My selection, turkey, avocado and sharp cheddar on rye, was as delicious as could be had anywhere made with bakery style bread and stuffed with juicy carving-board turkey.
Could anything be more refreshing on a hot Honolulu afternoon than "just squeezed nalo meli honey lemonade," (and where in the world would I ever find that again)? If I had possibly had time or room for it, I’d have been tempted by the sorbet terrine - mango, guava and haupia - or the tropilicious ice cream and buttermilk banana cream pie. But my tour leader was already gathering across the street on the lawn of the `Iolani.
The YMCA philosophy maintains that "spirit, mind and body" are the key elements of living a healthy life, a notion in step with my tour of Honolulu. So the next time I am downtown visiting a museum or gallery, I’ll take a mid-day break poolside at Café Laniakea, swim a few laps, lunch in royal style in the shadow of the Palace, and watch the world go by, while laughing at myself for ever having doubted the docent’s suggestion to dine here.
Member Rating 4 out of 5 on August 23, 2003
1040 Richards Street
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
Attraction | "`Iolani Palace - Part One"
Knowing some history of Hawaii’ royalty makes a visit to the Iolani Palace even more astounding, since the dramatic changes that occurred in Hawaii during the hundred years leading up to the Palace’s construction is the greatest wonder of it all.
Prior to the arrival of Captain Cook in 1786, Hawaiians, although governed by a strict social and legal code of law called kapu, basically lived off the land. Because the islands were so isolated, access to natural resources was limited. Although everything needed for pleasant and hearty survival was available, Hawaiians had no metal, precious or otherwise. Therefore, Hawaiians crafted everything from surfboards to calabash bowls using wood and stone tools. There was no cotton or flax, no cloth, no sails, no finery. Before the missionaries convinced them to do otherwise, the Hawaiians wore very little clothing and used leaves to protect themselves from the rain. They did not live in permanent structures, had no furniture in their thatched gathering rooms, and created no porcelain or glassware.
Before Cook, the missionaries, whalers and others, brought news of the outside world into Hawaii’s realm, the King’s greatest fortune was the reverence afforded him by his subjects. Before Hawaiians had access to precious metals and other natural resources, a King’s power was his lineage and raw physical might. His regal cloak was made of feathers.
To the Hawaiians, Cook’s arrival and all he brought with him, was akin to being visited by aliens. The newcomers came armed with goods, treasures and knowledge that was previously unimagined. With the exception of marvels revealed in mythological stories, the Hawaiians had never been exposed to such wonders. They mistook Cook as a demi-god and, as a result, the formerly isolated culture embraced the newfound access to the outside world.
The formerly isolated islanders also succumbed to disease, since they had no antibodies against common illnesses, eventually loosing 90% of the population. They abolished strict kapu laws, converted to Christianity, and the strength of the former culture was lost to the new order and immigration.
Within one hundred years of Cook’s arrival in Hawaii, after four generations of Kamahamehas educated themselves and their people with the knowledge brought by the haoles (outsiders), King Kala`kaua, Hawaii’s last king, built the Iolani Palace. He built it with the determined interest in proving to the outside world that Hawaii had become a capable, powerful, sophisticated monarchy with remarkable adaptability. His goal, to coax immigration to the islands, was successful and ironically brought an end to Hawaii’s long line of monarchs and the island Kingdom’s independence.
Tour `Iolani with all this in mind and you’ll find the Palace utterly mesmerizing.
Member Rating 5 out of 5 on August 23, 2003
364 South King Street
Honolulu, Hawaii 96804
Attraction | "`Iolani Palace - the Tour"
Built in 1882 by Hawaii’s final King, David Kalakaua, the palace has gone through many changes over the years. After the siege in 1893, it was used as headquarters of the provisional government and later as State headquarters, complete with Government Issue paint. All the glorious furnishings had been sold at auction and had to be recovered bit by bit once the new State Capitol was built and the Friends of `Iolani began their meticulous restoration.
In spite of the indecencies of the past, modern visitors are urged to offer the appropriate level of respect in this resting grounds of ali`i. An aura of hushed dignity also extends to touring the interior of the palace. Visitors are only allowed into the hallowed halls of the main structure twelve at a time accompanied by trained docents. Volunteer guides enthusiastically regale guests with historical facts, surprising anecdotes and detailed descriptions of the palace contents.
The Grand Tour, ($20) begins when a lovely wahine ushers the group through the palace grounds. After pointing out the coronation pavilion, the royal burial plots and various fragrant flowering trees, she leads guests to the steps of the verandah, where the docent begins his work. Pointing out the building’s exquisite exterior elements imported from around the world- the carved facade, the etched glass windows - he describes the unique mingling of native themes with popular turn-of-the-century styling brought from European courts.
Then visitors don protective booties and step inside. The State Dining room is set for a lavish dinner, with a 12-course menu that would shame a modern host. The Throne Room, enormous enough to house a grand ball, is replete with lavish red thrones rivaling a European 16th century court. The Blue Room, the setting for political debates and royal receptions has been meticulously restored. A crystal chandelier, recovered in sections from various owners who bought it at the infamous auction following the overthrown in 1893, shines overhead.
The palace is filled with gifts from dignitaries and foreign royals and brilliant portraits of the royal family and many delegates who enjoyed Aloha as the guests of King David and Queen Kapi`olani. The intimate poker room in the turret was a favored hangout for Robert Louis Stevenson and other notables of the era.
King David built `Iolani to show the world that Hawaii was no longer an isolated, primitive society. In his "American Florentine" palace, he installed electric lights and telephones before Buckingham Palace and the White House had them. But what he is most remembered for is his graciousness and merriment. He embraced people of all cultures on his trips around the globe while promoting and honoring his own Kingdom and culture, making David a King in the truest sense of the word, and `Iolani a palace fit for such a King.
The museum gallery plan hints at the broad exposure visitors encounter. The museum, listed on both National and State Registers, is arranged around six striking courtyards, each leading to an exhibit hall, taking advantage of Hawaii‘s work-of-art climate and foliage.
The first marvel is the Asian courtyard, with exotic Japanese, Indonesian, Pan Pacific and Chinese art collections. Most memorable are the substantial donations by James Michener, including some notable interpretations from Japanese theater. Another stunning exhibit was a completely intact samurai warrior outfit made from bronze, leather, brocade and other haute materials, signifying the elite status of these men.
Photos are not allowed inside the museum, but fortuitously, a traditional Japanese wedding rehearsal was taking place in the Asian courtyard, where I had turned a lens on the proceedings. Suddenly, a friendly but alert security guard took an interest in me. Once assured I was breaking no covenants, my chaperone acted as impromptu docent and explained that the Academy is a favored venue for private functions. And why not? Surrounded by glorious works of art and landscapes, guests are encouraged to freely peruse the collections during off-hour events.
Knowing this, I imagined stepping outside with a cocktail and encountering, van Gogh, Picasso, Monet and Gauguin. In the Western exhibit hall, ancient busts and Renaissance wonders share exhibit space with Mary Cassatt, Whistler and Georgia O’Keefe, whose startling rendition of the `Iao Valley resolutely resembles her famous flowers.
What better ice-breaker for guests than to browse the Hawaiiana collection, complete with the famous original portrait of
King Kamehameha by Louis Choris? The Oceania exhibit exposes artifacts and art by Pacific Island Cultures, including tapa cloth and feather capes. Not overlooked, the Native American cultures from North to South contribute Raven Rattles from British Columbia, an Ecuadorian female figure from 300 B.C., Kachina Dolls and Mexican masks, all representing the various cultures of the great migration.
The hallmark of the Academy is the the Doris Duke Foundation association and Shangri-La tours. Since November, 2002, the public has been invited to tour the magnificent retreat of the famous heiress, which houses 3,500 pieces of Islamic art. This press release reveals details of the in-demand excursions and present a excellent glimpse into the out-of-this world property.
Although tickets are difficult to snag for Shangri-La, you’ll need no engraved invitation to enjoy the collections and sultry ambiance at the Academy. So when in Honolulu, why not take a break from the sun and step into its light?
Honolulu Academy of Arts
900 South Beretania Street
Honolulu, Hawaii 96814
Attraction | "The Contemporary Museum of Art"
Mrs. Charles Montague Cooke, the same woman who bequeathed her Berentania estate to the Honolulu Academy of Arts years earlier, built this estate in 1925. Later, her daughter donated it as an annex to the Academy. At one point it was considered for development, but the Twigg-Smith family offered the land in 1986 as the site of Hawaii’s sole Contemporary Museum of Art.
The permanent collection includes 1,600 impressive pieces including works by Andy Warhol, Robert Graham and Joseph Seigenthaler. Additionally, rotating exhibits feature both world-class and local artists of note and give visitors new reasons monthly to come up the hill.
During my recent visit, the art of renowned L.A. artist, Tom Knechtel was on display, providing a stimulating experience that ping-pong-ed my mind from heady fantasy to startling surprise and back. As the brochure description noted: Knechtel’s province has been the grotesque and the ravishing, the intimate and the spectacular, the jubilant and the melancholic, an apt description of the work. Many of his images were permanently burned into my mind’s eye after just one glance.
Step outside to view some of the museums’ best creations. Splendid landscaped paths lead around the perimeter of the three and half-acre property shaded by majestic trees intermingled with stellar sculptural works. These gardens and collections include some of my personal contemporary favorites, including Five Trees, by Abe Satoru.
The gardens were fashioned in the decade after the home was built by Reverend K. H. Inagaki, who created an idyll known as Nu'umealani, or Heavenly Terraces. Meandering on the downward slope and ravine of the property, the retreat is the ideal spot to roam or sit in quiet contemplation of the art found inside and out.
A former guest house adjacent to the gardens houses David Hockney’s inspired exhibit based on the Ravel opera L'Enfant et les Sortilèges (The Child and the Enchantment). The exhibit gives the illusion of walking through life-sized illustrations from a favorite children’s story in which a boy confined to his room conjures up images of fantasy and revenge. As the music from the opera plays in the background, after making the adjustment to the theatrical stage lighting, you soon become a player in the boy’s story.
A final rotating exhibit is located at the Museum Café. There, art mingles with delicious lunch options from soup to salads, crostini to Hijiki Tofu Burgers, which are as contemporary and delectable as the art on display.
In total, the attractions at the Contemporary Museum ensure its position as Honolulu’s best place to feed body, soul and spirit.
2411 Makiki Heights Drive
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
+ 1 808 526 0232
The building reflects the dramatic changes that occurred in Hawaii within less than a century after Cook’s arrival. Even before `Iolani was built to demonstrate to the world and Hawaiian populace alike that Hawaii had entered a new, modern era of prosperity, the Judiciary was built of concrete blocks, a relatively novel material for the islands. Considered to be "infinitely superior for both durability and ornament" and better able to stand the test of time than lava rock or stone, this would become the permanent home for the administration of justice, the Hawaiian Supreme Court, scientific endeavors and an extensive law library.
Historically, the Judiciary building’s early days were rife with drama. Ali`I walked the halls, revolutionaries plotted attacks and new provisional governments managed tumultuous affairs here. From the Wilcox insurrection (1887) when a group of citizens unhappy with constitutional changes stormed the building, to the infamous overthrow of the Monarchy in 1893, a bloodless coup nevertheless fraught with turmoil, the building has been in the center of political activity far beyond determining the outcome of court cases. Hence, it is entirely appropriate that Hawaii have a Judiciary History Museum housed within the very walls where history was made.
Today the Ali`iolani Hale is a popular visitor destination due mostly to the fascinating exhibits dealing with the unique 200 year history of government and legal issues in Hawaii starting from the pre-contact Kapu days to the present. Reading about the specific cases as outlined in the exhibit, gives visitors an inside look into the values, attitudes and life of Hawaii prior to statehood (1959).
One exhibit is particularly revealing. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, even before Hawaii became the 50th State of the Union, the American government imposed the longest running period of Martial Law ever visited on a territory or state. From 1941-1944, the population was denied the use of lights after sundown, (no night drives), all communication was censored, (including mail, telephone and newspapers), curfews imposed, citizens fingerprinted, government issued I.D.’s mandatory, and currency replaced.
Standing protectively before the Judiciary Center is one of Honolulu’s most famous landmarks; the impressive bronze likeness of King Kamehamaha. Even the history of this statue is wrapped in intrigue. Originally reported "lost at sea," after a replacement was made the lost version was recovered in the Falkland Islands.
A visit to the Judiciary reveals drama and intrigue around every corner, making it another key place to learn about the turbulent history of Hawaii.
Judiciary History Center
King and Queen Street
But to miss the opportunity to experience symphonic music, Hawaiian style, would be a shame. Since the orchestra engaged the dynamic talent of Samuel Wong, widely considered to be "one of the most exciting conductors of his generation," an association with the New York Philharmonic was created resulting in over 30 performances that have validated the island State’s reputation for premiere orchestral music.
Additionally, beloved maestro, Matt Catingub, has infused the symphony’s Pop series with his own brand of charisma, often bringing new meaning to the game "musical chairs" as he alternates between conducting, singing, and playing a myriad of instruments to accompany pieces he has often composed and arranged. He is especially noteworthy for having expanded the Pops series to include more mainland and international entertainers. Due to his extensive technical talents, he is able to accommodate even those artists who would not typically work with an orchestral score.
It was the opening season of the 2003 Pops Series that brought me to Honolulu recently to enjoy my first exposure to the Blaisdell Center and the Symphony with James Ingram as headliner. I was more interested in hearing the orchestra itself and observing its interaction with a pop performer than I was with Ingram’s ballads per se, most top 40 hits of the ‘70’s. So it was an especially delightful surprise to find the Honolulu Jazz Quartet opening as the warm-up act. Lead by a "local boy" who plays a mean bass, supported by a snare-drum tight band, this act alone made the night.
Then James Ingram took the stage. Although he may have already sung his hits a million times, already found "One Hundred Ways" to "Keep The Love Alive," that night all he had to do was sing to win over the audience. By the time he introduced one of his final numbers by recounting the story of his true love at age 17, the woman to whom he has been married for life and with whom he has raised six children, no amount of air-conditioning could suppress the heat generated by the audience of middle-aged women lost in romantic nostalgia (or were those hot flashes?)
In any event, between the jazz, the beautiful ushers in their plantation dresses, maestro Matt’s pony-tailed, aloha conviviality, the classical musicians modeling their new-season Hilo Hattie shirts, or the inspiration born of strings, reeds and timpani reverberating the room, it was a glorious night at orchestra hall, revealing yet another unique aspect of Hawaiian culture.
Admittedly, the Blaisdell Center cannot boast the nation's best acoustics, but there is surely no orchestra that plays with more aloha.
Member Rating 4 out of 5 on October 21, 2003
650 Iwilei Road, #202
Honolulu, Hawaii 96817
+1 808 524 0815
A long time ago in a land far, far away called Hawaii, ancient Polynesians discovered the archipelago after making their way across vast expanses of sea in outrigger canoes guided only by wisdom and instinct that evades modern-day scholars still. For centuries (400-1778) Hawaiians lived following a strict social code called kapu tempered by aloha. Kapu maintained order and abundance and Aloha ensured happiness and peace.
Not long after Cook’s arrival in the islands (1778), King Kamehameha successful bid for unification created a central government and era of prosperity. Hawaii became a center for fur and sandalwood trade routes and later whaling broke out as a major industry. Whaler’s, sailors, and traders were lured to the area’s promise of plenty, and exotic, sensuous culture and foreign entrepreneurs competed for the King’s favor and the islands’ potential. Soon, missionaries were sent by to temper the vice flourishing amid the rediscovered paradise.
The natives were not the missionaries’ greatest challenge, for Hawaiians easily adapted to the concepts of Christianity, having been guided for a thousand years by the spirit of love and Aloha. After Kamehameha I died, his widow, Ka`ahumanu, converted and served as regent during the reign of her children. Kamehamaha II first broke kapu without the feared dire consequences which launched the end of an era. Kamehamaha III went on to establish a constitutional monarchy with a representative legislature that gave male citizens the vote. Kanaka Maoli, a principle long accepted by islanders whereby they shared their land with everyone, gave way to the Western concept of single land ownership. The "Great Mahele" gave foreigners ownership rights to segments of land.
By 1843 France, England and the United States had recognized Hawaii as an independent nation. Within decades after the missionaries created a written Hawaiian language, (before that time all information was passed down in oral history) Hawaiians had the highest literacy rate in the country. The first preparatory school west of the Rocky Mountains was established in Lahaina, Hawaii.
But the monarchy was feeling the negative effects of rapid change. Disease, brought by the outsiders against which the islanders had no immunities, wrecked havoc. Within a few generations the number of native subjects was reduced dramatically. Meanwhile, descendents of the missionaries and other outsiders, many who were brought to Hawaii to work the plantations, were establishing strong entrepreneurial outlets and outnumbering the aboriginal Hawaiians.
Times were nevertheless prosperous and Kamehameha V further improved Hawaii’s balance of trade during his reign. He attempted to marry lovely Bernice Pauahi, the last descendent of Kamehameha, but she married a white man, Charles Bishop instead. Failing in his attempt to marry and lacking an heir, Kamehameha V tried to convince Bernice to ascend the throne following him, but she refused. A new king, a distant relative of Kamehameha I, was elected but soon died of consumption, one of only many suspicious royal deaths during the era. (Some accounts suggest poison gave assistance to snuffing out the era of ali’I, but nothing has been proven.)
The royal lineage was left without an heir apparent. The legislature elected David Kalakaua, descended from a cousin of Kamehameha the Great. Many people had wanted dowager Queen Emma, married to a former King and Bernice Pauahi’s aunt, to become rightful queen. So much so that the British Marines were called in to squelch a riot following the election of David. Clearly, trouble was brewing in paradise and all the events mentioned so far play a role in the outcome.
During David’s reign, a group of powerful businessmen instituted a "Bayonet Constitution" pressuring the King that unless he sign the document and follow their orders, the group, calling themselves the Committee of Safety, would take more drastic action. Under the new constitution, voting rights were extended only to those with high property ownership and income levels, but denied to Asians regardless of their status.
With a bayonnet at his back, David complied. His actual powers being diminished, he sought instead to prove his position by appealing to the Western world, circumnavigating the globe, and building the `Iolani Palace where he hosted and wooed dignitaries and heads of State.
When King David died, his throne went to his sister and regent, Lili`uokalani. She attempted to restore some power to the authentic monarchy and hoped to replace the Bayonnet Constitution. As a result, the Committee of Safety, headed up by Lorrin Thurston took control of the palace, the queen and the Kingdom in conspiracy with the U.S. Foreign Minister, John Stevens.
Essentially, the group had Mr. Stevens, an annexationist, back their claim that the U.S. Marines aboard the USS Boston stationed in Honolulu were needed to squelch another riot. But the Marines marched to the Palace and found nothing but a group of businessmen intimidating a Queen into submission.
On Jan. 17, 1893, rather than risk bloodshed, and certain that the United States would restore her rightful position once the matter was revealed, the eloquent Queen wrote the following letter of surrender:
"I, Lili`uokalani, by the grace of God and under the constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the constitutional government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom. That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, ... to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps loss of life, I do, ... yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representative and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands."
Then Queen LILI`UOKALANI, wrote to U. S. President Benjamin Harrison on January 18,1893.
His Excellency BENJAMIN HARRISON, President of the United States:
MY GREAT AND GOOD FRIEND: It is with deep regret that I address you on this occasion. Some of my subjects, aided by aliens, have renounced their loyalty and revolted against the constitutional government of my Kingdom. They have attempted to depose me and to establish a provisional government, in direct conflict with the organic law of this Kingdom….I pray you, therefore, my good friend, that you will not allow any conclusions to be reached by you until my envoy arrives. I beg to assure you of the continuance of my highest consideration.
HONOLULU, January 18,1893.
Help was not swiftly forthcoming. The revolutionaries established their own government with Sanford Dole as president of the new Republic. When supporters of the queen, lead by Robert Wilcox, a half-Hawaiian, half-white subject, attempted to overthrow the new government, the queen was charged with treason and the plotters were sentenced to death.
The matter garnered Washington’s further attention when the Queen’s niece, the fair Princess Kaiulani , entreated her kingdom’s case before President Cleveland. A series of investigations followed and the President addressed Congress vehemently denouncing the activities in Hawaii, supporting the Queen and her right to rule her Kingdom. He then put the matter of congressional hearings in the hands of John Morgan, an annexationist, who eventually found no fault with the uprising. Yet, members of Congress were shrewd enough to depose the former U. S. Minister, John Stevens, and pass a resolution opposing the annexation of Hawaii.
Nothing more was done. Cleveland left office, Sanford Dole (of pineapple fame) became Governor of the new Republic, and the Queen was held under armed guard in her own Palace for eight months. The new U. S. President, William McKinley, was busy urging the country out of depression with a 100 Day War against the Spanish, and annexation, despite protests, moved forward. In 1898, the U.S. annexed Hawaii along with Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. As to the Hawaiian incident, former President Cleveland wrote, "I am ashamed of the whole affair."
In 1993, the anniversary of the take-over in Hawaii, `Iolani Palace was draped in black, and President Clinton signed an apology resolution regarding the series of activities that determined the end of Hawaii’s monarchy. Although the past isn’t easily undone, it is important to educate ourselves about it. Visiting Hawaii armed with a bit of history, one can‘t help but ponder the past and question the future, seeing things in a broader-minded light.
Hawaii’s sovereignty was lost, but Aloha lives on. In it, the spirit of the Ali’I still thrive, ensuring that Hawaii to this day, is like no place else on earth.