So, you want a culinary experience when you are in Cairo, other than hotel food, American fast food or some snack you brought from the airport? There are a number of exotic restaurants from Lebanese to Syrian to Asian to Indian, so many menus will have items from these cultures as well.
Here are some foods that you may come across that I have been told are truly Egyptian....
Foul Mudammas - (pronounced "fool") is a vegetarian dish of mashed beans served with onion, parsley, chili powder, cumin powder and olive oil. With a consistency of hummus and babagannoush, this dish is eaten for breakfast!
Falafel - a patty of ground chickpeas deep fried and coated with sesame seeds. I was told that falafel originated in Egypt
Shawarma - spit roasted meat usually beef, chicken or lamb served with grilled tomato and onions and a tahini sauce
Tahini - paste of ground sesame seeds
Albalady bread - a puffy light flat bread, slightly coated in semolina....
Kebab - chunks of meat, at times boneless and ground meats grilled on skewers. In general I have found the chicken is much better than the beef in Egypt.
Koshary - (vegetarian dish) a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni in a tomato salsa
Fateer - phyllo pie with honey or molasses drizzled on top served with a dollop of cream and powdered sugar