The first inhabitants of Peru are believed to be in around 12000BC but settlements did not start to occur in any great number until nearer 4000BC. Little is known of early inhabitants and by the late 14th Century / early 15th the Inca dominated the region.
The Spanish Conquistador, Francisco Pizarro explored the coastal areas in 1527 and returned with devastating effect in 1533 when he executed the Inca Emperor and then founded the capital city of Lima . Pizarro was assassinated in 1541 and despite a number of hostile actions and all out rebellion by the Incas in 1572, the country remained under colonial control. Unrest reappeared in the late 1700s with another rebellion but the Spanish retained control until 1824. Although Pizarro was a conqueror and generally pillaged the land for Gold he is still highly regarded and there’s a statue of him in Central Lima, near the general post office
The Inca people despite their rather violent tendancies were totally unprepared for the highly trained military troops under Pizarro’s command and the new technology that he brought with him, Although the history books were written by the Spanish conquerors it is clear that the Incas had very few successful battles with the conquistadors and those were won at heavy cost. The Incas did however have a trick up their sleeve – their knowledge of the landscape which allowed them to avoid conflict and ended up with the construction of Macchu Picchu – probably South America’s most famous historical sight