on October 13, 2011
Peterhof is located 29 km from Saint-Petersburg on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. Why Peter decided to build a summer residence here for several reasons. One of them - an ideal location for the time being built between Kronstadt and St. Petersburg worthwhile.Peterhof as the imperial residence built in 1714 - 1725, respectively. The Great Palace of Peter was originally a very humble, but was later rebuilt by his daughter, Empress Elizabeth.Peterhof park territory is divided into two main parts: the upper and lower park. Upper Park area of 15 hectares, the area of the Lower - 102 hectares. At Peterhof fountains huge number: 5 - in the Upper Park and more than 150 - in the Lower Park. Also in the Lower Park is located four stage.Log in Upper Park is free. However, to enjoy the fountains in the Lower Park, it is necessary to defend the queue to the cashier and pay 250 rubles.During the Great Patriotic War, Peterhof was destroyed by the Nazis. Many fountains are currently reconstructed copies.In the form in which the Upper Park stands before us now, it was arranged after Peter. In the practical life of Peter ordered the break there gardens for growing vegetables.The Grand Palace in September 1941 burned 3 days, all exhibits interior of the palace, which did not have time to take out, irrevocably destroyed. In addition, the central part of the palace in 1944, was blown up by the Nazis. So the modern look of the Grand Palace is a kind of post-war remakes.Peterhof is certainly one of the most magnificent country residences of the Romanov dynasty, embodies the wealth and power of the Russian Empire during its heyday.Marine channel created at the suggestion of Peter I, whom he assigned not only decorative, but the shipping function connects the Grand Cascade fountains to the sea. Width of the Sea Canal - 12 feet. Once it was possible to swim directly to the Grand Palace.The main (large) stage of the Lower Park of Peterhof is unique fountains, one of the world's most beautiful architectural ensembles.The centerpiece of the Great Cascade Fountain is "Samson" was first established in 1735 in honor of the 25th anniversary of the victory of Russian troops over the Swedes at Poltava (Poltava battle) won by June 27, 1709 in St. Day. Sampson Strannopriimtsa.Samson is the tallest fountain, the height of the jet can reach up to 20 meters.Appearance of Peterhof fountains over the years has changed. For example, in Peter's time, many of them were wooden. And in 1726 they have been ruined. The Office of the buildings requested the same figures cast in lead and gold.But the most surprising thing in the fountains of Peterhof is not their numbers or beauty, but how they work. It does not use water pumps, or pumps. Water is gravity due to the difference in the level height.To supply the fountains of Peterhof was specially built Ropsha wide channel 6.4 and a depth of 2.13 meters. Today, the length of culvert is 40 miles! And he created the drawings and led the first Russian hydraulic engineer Vasily Tuvolkova.Back in 1715 he was sent to Peter for the study of hydraulics to France, and four years of training to be an engineer of the European level. He laid the basis for gravity water main principle of communicating vessels.The water fountain is accumulated in 18 artificial ponds, reservoirs with a total area of 100 hectares. And when you open the damper locks, she rushes through the pipes to fountains and soars upward, trying to gain height, equal to that on which the ponds distributors. Even in the driest years, fountains of Peterhof beat the joy of the guests of this unique place.Most of this palace and park ensemble of 102 ha is lower park with tenistnymi alleys, gardens, gazebos, pavilions, and, of course, fanciful fountains. Today we present a royal personages and walk on the Lower Park of Peterhof.In the middle of an orchard is a fountain which is called the "Greenhouse". In the middle of a round pool a sculptural group, "Triton, tearing the jaws of a sea monster." From the point of the fight in fear of flow four turtles. From the mouth of a crocodile and turtle digging bubbling water jets. In the XVIII century sculptural group "hothouse" fountain was given a symbolic meaning: the image of Triton was personified young Russian navy, who inflicted a decisive defeat on the Swedish squadron at Gangut July 27, 1714.A feature of the Lower Park is the large number of fountains, firecrackers remaining, indispensable attributes of the XVIII century parks. Monplaisir in French means "my pleasure". That is how Peter I called a small palace with the adjoining site in the eastern part of Lower Park. The king himself chose the site for houses on the shore of the bay, drew a plan of garden in front of the southern facade of the building and gave instructions on how to plant flower beds and make a fountain. The oldest fountains of Peterhof are symmetrically arranged "Adam" and Eve "by Peter I ordered the Italian sculptor Bonazzi in 1717 specifically to Peterhof. It is believed that the fountain "Adam" was made in Peter's life, and "Eve" is already in the reign of his wife Catherine I. Marley - the name of the ensemble of the western part of the park, the palace and stage, borrowed from France. The title of one of the most beautiful country residences Sun King Louis XIV.
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